Windows Basic Commands

Posted by admin at July 22, 2021

What Is CMD CMD stands for Command (.CMD). A command is an instruction given to a computer program that tells the program what has to be done. It is an application that is found in most computers with Windows as the Operating System, and it helps in the execution of the commands entered. It is […]


Communication in UNIX

Posted by Amrita Gautam at July 18, 2021

INTRODUCTION The strongest feature of UNIX is self-networking or communication. Today most of the companies still prefer UNIX because of this feature. Communication is a facility through which user can send and receive messages and data from one user to another. There are two type of communication is possible in UNIX:  Remote communication as well […]


UNIX Administration

Posted by Amrita Gautam at July 3, 2021

INTRODUCTION When we work with any kind of system, whether a single-user or multi-user, it needs a kind of management to control its resources, work on them and perform many other tasks related with the environment of thesystem. In single-user system the user is the in-charge of the system tomanage all activities of the system […]



Posted by Amrita Gautam at May 15, 2021

There are several features of UNIX that have made it very popular. The main features of UNIX are as fellows: Multi-User UNIX is a Multi-user operating system which allows concurrent access to Host machine by multiple users working different terminals. In UNIX operating system, UNIX server allows multiple users to have access to the UNIX […]



Posted by Amrita Gautam at

UNIX follows Layered architecture as shown in figure below. It consists of four main layers called: Hardware, shall and Utilities. HARDWARE  It Consist with all physical components of computer system and hardware modules of the system visible with naked eyes such as:monitor, CPU, RAM etc. KERNEL  The kernel of UNIX is the hub of the […]



Posted by Amrita Gautam at

The origin of UNIX dates back to 1965, when a joint venture was signed by bell laboratories, General Electric company and MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). The aim of this joint venture was to develop an operating system which had  Capability to serve large community  Capability to provide sharing of data among users working on […]



Posted by Anisha Jaiswar at May 14, 2021

Multithreading Model There are two types of threads 1.User threads      2. Kernel threads  Kernel threads are supported and managed directly by the operating system. User threads are above the kernel and the managed without kernel support. There are three common ways of establishing relationship between user threads and kernel threads. Many-to-one model One-to-one model Many-to-many […]


Overview of UNIX

Posted by Amrita Gautam at May 2, 2021

INTRODUCTION An operating system is the software that manages all the resources of computer and provides a convenient and safe environment for running programs . Though , there are various operating systems available in the market today like DOS , Windows , UNIX , Linux etc.Amongst these UNIX operating system had arrived in the computer […]


Linux Partitions and Filesystems

Posted by admin at April 20, 2020

Think of a refrigerator that has multiple shelves that can be used for storing various items. These shelves help you organize the grocery items by shape, size, type, etc. The same concept applies to a filesystem, which is the embodiment of a method of storing and organizing arbitrary collections of data in a human-usable form. Different types […]


The Linux Kernel

Posted by admin at April 6, 2020

The boot loader loads both the kernel and an initial RAM–based file system (initramfs) into memory, so itcan be used directly by the kernel.   When the kernel is loaded in RAM, it immediately initializes and configures the computer’s memory and also configures all the hardware attached to the system. This includes all processors, I/O subsystems, storage […]